Japanese phrases that even probably the most proficient learners of the language discover the toughest to pronounce might be, mockingly, those borrowed from their very own native tongue.
My spouse, who’s initially from the US and now could be a fluent speaker of Japanese after residing in Japan for 15 years, nonetheless struggles to pronounce one in all her residence nation’s most well-known manufacturers — «McDonald’s,» which in Japanese is マクドナルド (makudonarudo).
Understanding how katakanization works is a vital sensible talent for native English audio system who examine Japanese.
Phrases of English origin, after they get transformed to katakana, usually throw off native audio system of English. It is because it is onerous to unlearn their native tongue’s phonology — the sound system with a algorithm that they subconsciously observe since their early childhood — after which modify the unique sound to match the Japanese phonology. I name this course of katakanization as a result of international phrases tailored into Japanese are sometimes spelled with katakana characters and are generally known as katakana-go (katakana phrases).
In my view as a local speaker of Japanese and a language lover, realizing how katakanization works is a vital sensible talent for native English audio system who examine Japanese. Not solely can the power to pronounce these phrases enable you to be extra simply understood by Japanese audio system, it additionally has the additional benefit of increasing your vocabulary, and virtually instantaneously, with out as a lot effort as you may assume. And as you may already know, we use a variety of katakanized loanwords of English origin. Like, lots.
So I’m writing this text with the hope of serving to native-English-speaking Japanese learners who battle with one of many greatest quirks of the Japanese language — katakana phrases. Later on this article, you’ll be taught three primary guidelines for how you can katakanaize English phrases. I hope they’ll enable you to have the ability to katakanize phrases by yourself so to pronounce phrases of English origin in a means that Japanese audio system can simply perceive.
Stipulations: To get probably the most out of this text, you must already know katakana (particularly how you can pronounce them). If it’s worthwhile to brush up, take a look at our Final Katakana Information.
Earlier than moving into the fundamental katakanization guidelines, first, let me clarify a bit extra about why I believe you must be taught them.
No person Needs That «Oh-No-This-Individual-Is-Speaking-to-Me-in-English Look,» Proper?
One of the widespread causes I hear some learners (even when their Japanese is fairly superior) keep away from katakanizing English phrases is, «Why cannot I simply pronounce English phrases accurately?»
The reply is fairly easy. Many Japanese audio system would not have the ability to perceive it except they know the unique English pronunciation of the phrase. Is not «with the ability to talk with Japanese folks» the entire level of learning Japanese (at the least, for a lot of of you), anyway?
Code-switching to your native tongue compromises intelligibility.
Whereas code-switching to your native tongue might offer you some authenticity because the speaker of the unique language, it compromises intelligibility. You could possibly strive asking «McDonald’s-tte doko desu ka?» (The place is McDonald’s?) with perfectly-pronounced McDonald’s on the road in Japan. You could possibly additionally strive asking the place «Seven-Eleven» is with out katakanizing it to sebun irebun (セブンイレブン). In both case, you’ll probably get that horrified, oh-no-this-person-is-talking-to-me-in-English look.
Observe that for katakanized phrases which might be notably lengthy and generally is a little bit trippy, you may normally shorten them — in reality, many Japanese folks do! Take the earlier instance of マクドナルド; this may be shortened to マック or マクド. Equally, セブンイレブン turns into セブン. So don’t be concerned if you do not have full confidence of pronunciation simply at first.
Japanese Audio system Use English Loanwords, Like A Lot
Japanese folks use 3,000 — 5,000 loanwords in day by day conversations, and 94% of them are of English origin.
Names of restaurant and retailer chains usually are not the one English phrases borrowed into the Japanese language. English-derived loanwords have been deeply woven into Japanese, each written and spoken. A examine from the Nineteen Nineties confirmed that over 35% of all vocabulary printed in 70 Japanese magazines had been international loanwords, most of them being of English origin. A 2010 ebook about wasei eigo (Japan-made English) additionally indicated that Japanese folks use 3,000 — 5,000 loanwords in day by day conversations, and 94% of them are of English origin. After all, these research are from years in the past, so we in all probability use much more katakana phrases in Japanese at this time. The purpose is, it is so onerous to hold on conversations in Japanese with out Western loanwords that Japan even has a ingesting recreation the place it’s a must to take a shot each time you utilize one!
The portion of English loanwords in Japanese is growing with the inflow of recent applied sciences and ideas are evident in software program manuals like: アイコンをダブルクリックしてアプリケーションをインストールします icon-o doubleclick-shite application-o install-shimasu «Doubleclick the icon to put in the appliance.» With this, it is changing into all of the extra useful to understand how katakanization works. Whereas having to Japanize your native tongue generally is a problem, it could enable you turn out to be extra approachable for individuals who grew up talking Japanese.
Unpronounceable English Sounds
You may additionally need to ask why Japanese audio system katakanize English phrases within the first place. It is just because many sound patterns in English usually are not permitted within the Japanese phonology, identical to the French guttural
/r/ is not in English. One of many (many) explanation why English pronunciation is a pure nightmare for Japanese highschool children is that Japanese doesn’t enable any syllables ending with a consonant apart from
/n/ (ン). English has hundreds of phrases ending with consonants like cat, look and ship however they’re merely unpronounceable within the Japanese phonological universe.
There is no such thing as a alternative aside from to katakanize loanwords to make them pronounceable throughout the Japanese phonology.
Advanced syllables like power, sixth and garments are much more unpronounceable for Japanese audio system as a result of the Japanese phonology would not allow two or extra consonants to be squeezed collectively. The English
/th/ sound is completely impermissible in Japanese — in reality, in most human languages — and subsequently must be changed with the closest Japanese sound
/s/ as in surī (スリー) «three.» Merely put, there isn’t a alternative aside from to katakanize them to make them pronounceable throughout the Japanese phonology.
So katakanization would not precisely occur due to the writing system. It is exactly due to the Japanese phonology that governs how phrases are pronounced within the language.
Primary Conversion Guidelines
So how precisely does katakanization work? Though now we have some exceptions, there are three primary conversion guidelines that native Japanese audio system subconsciously apply.
Observe: IPA symbols we use on this article are based mostly on American English pronunciations.
Rule #1: Add Vowels
When a consonant is just not instantly adopted by a vowel, you add a vowel.
It is because every sound normally includes a vowel in Japanese. The ン (
/m/) sound is an exception, however moreover that, a unit of Japanese sounds is both a single vowel like ア
/a/ — イ
/i/ — ウ
/u/ — エ
/e/ — オ
/o/, or a set of consonant and a vowel like カ
/ka/ — キ
/ki/ — ク
/ku/ — ケ
/ke/ — コ
/ko/. If you understand how katakana works, this in all probability is sensible to you.
Now, what vowel ought to I be including, proper? That’s:
- Nothing after
Let’s use the phrase «danger» for instance. First, r is adopted by a vowel i, so that you simply go away it alone. However the remainder, s and okay usually are not adopted by a vowel. For s, you add u. For okay, add u. And you will get ri-su-ku — リスク.
Check out one other instance — the phrase «dimension.» If you attempt to parse it, you see two pairs of a consonant and a vowel — si and ze. So it will be… シゼ…? No, not that. Watch out to not get confused with the spelling and the sound. The phrase «dimension» seems like «saiz,» proper? In case you may’t consider the phonetic spelling off the highest of your head, there are converters like this which may come helpful for katakanization. Now, going again to the «dimension (saiz)», z is the one sound that is not adopted by a vowel. So that you add a u there, and now you have bought sa-i-zu — サイズ. That is the way you write and say «dimension» in Japanese.
Rule #2: Exchange Sounds
Exchange illegitimate sounds with comparable respectable Japanese sounds.
You may already know this, however the Japanese language has fewer sounds than the sounds English has. Like I discussed earlier, the th
/θ/ sound would not actually exist in Japanese, and the closest sound is the s sound. That is why «three» turns into surii (スリー) and «thanks» turns into sankyū (サンキュー) in Japanese. Identical to that, for sounds that the Japanese language would not have, you will be changing sounds with the Japanese equivalents. Now let’s take a deeper look.
As you might know, Japanese has solely 5 vowel sounds ア, イ, ウ, エ, and オ. That is clearly extra restricted in comparison with English — for instance, English has three «a» sounds (
/ə/), however ア replaces all of them.
|エ||ɛ||each day /ˈɛvɹiˌdeɪ/||エブリデイ|
All examples above begin with vowels for the sake of instance, however in fact, this alternative rule applies to a mix of vowels and consonants.
Phrases «hat» and «hut» — they’ve the totally different «a» sounds, however in Japanese, they each get transformed to ハット as a result of the
/ʌ/ sounds each substitute to ア. This implies «cowboy hat» (カウボーイハット) and «Pizza Hut» (ピザハット) — they each use ハット regardless of the distinction within the English sounds.
Additionally, in the case of vowels, take note of the size of the vowel in query. Lengthy, prolonged vowel sounds are represented as «ー,» the hyphen-looking image in Japanese. For instance, «pull» is プル (puru), however «pool» is プール (pūru). An
/r/ after a vowel as in automobile, 4 and earth turns into the extension of the vowel as effectively. So, very similar to in British English, automobile is カー (kā), 4 is フォー (fō) and earth is アース (āsu).
Now, onto consonants! Identical to among the vowels, there are a number of English consonant sounds that do not actually exist in Japanese, and thus get changed with the closest sound as a substitute. Listed here are some examples.
Now, taking a look at this checklist, are you able to guess what the phrase «stomach» would appear like in katakana?
Stomach could be ベリー, identical to «berry» and «very.» That is as a result of there is not any distinction in sound between «b» and «v» nor «r» and «l» in Japanese. ベリー attention-grabbing (…and probably ベリー complicated), proper?
There are additionally just a few consonant + vowel pairs that we pronounce in a different way in English but get represented with the identical katakana character in Japanese. These variations may be extra delicate than those proven above, however for instance, si and shi each turn out to be シ. So «sea» and «she» each turn out to be シー in katakana. Equally, the voiced variations of those sounds, «zi» and «ji» each turn out to be ジ.
Rule #3: Duplicate Consonants
Duplicate the «cease» consonant on the finish of the phrase if it happens after a brief vowel.
Bit, dip, look… What makes these phrases sound so skippy? It’s the fast «pause» between sounds. In romaji to characterize this sort of sound, we use duplicated consonants like bitto, proper? In katakana, we use ッ (the small tsu) as in ビット to characterize these fast pauses. You may be duplicating the «cease» consonants, that are
/g/ — sounds you make by blocking the air circulation.
Now, let’s observe katakanizing «dip» and «look» — «dip» turns into ディップ (dippu) and «look» turns into ルック(rukku). Are you getting the gist?
Keep in mind this rule typically applies to the final syllable solely. For instance, picnic turns into pikunikku (ピクニック) as a substitute of pikkunikku (ピックニック). Additionally remember this solely occurs to the consonant after a quick vowel versus lengthy vowels, like beat, deep, or Luke.
Congrats, you have simply realized the three primary guidelines of katakanization! Though these three guidelines account for many katakanization processes, they will not merely make you a grasp of katakanization. You may nonetheless encounter curve balls and a few difficult ones — for these, you continue to must make small changes right here and there.
When you’re hoping to take your katakanization to the subsequent degree, it will be a good suggestion to evaluation mixture katakana. Mixture katakana are katakana characters fabricated from a mix with a small character like フォ, ティ, or ジュ.
For instance, you may count on «cat» to turn out to be katto (カット), however it truly needs to be kyatto (キャット) as a result of the vowel of cat makes the c sound extra just like the Japanese
/kya/ sound than the
/ka/ sound. Equally, «hole» turns into gyappu (ギャップ) as a substitute of gappu (ガップ). That is too straightforward? These may be comparatively widespread katakana combos, however there are some curveballs you may not be so conversant in — like トゥ as in トゥモロー (tomorrow), or デュ as in デュエット (duet).
These mixture katakana are the unsung heroes of katakana. They permit us to characterize sounds that we did not have in Japanese — the sounds are even nearer to the unique English pronunciations.
Immediately, loanwords tend to use mixture katakana to raised characterize the unique sounds.
Nonetheless, mixture katakana might be much less acquainted and not-so-easy-to-pronounce for Japanese audio system, particularly older of us. Immediately, loanwords tend to use mixture katakana to raised characterize the unique sounds, however this wasn’t all the time the case. For instance, «concept» was generally written as アイデア in katakana, however as of late, アイディア is much extra widespread. And, this results in the subsequent be aware: be careful for older loanwords!
Watch Out for Older Loanwords
A few of you’ll have already seen widespread English loanwords do not actually observe the fundamental guidelines. Like, kēki (ケーキ) «cake» not being kēku (ケーク), rajio (ラジオ) «radio» not being reidio (レイディオ) and kariforunia (カリフォルニア) «California» nor being kyarifōnia (キャリフォーニア). That’s as a result of these phrases are comparatively outdated borrowings that got here to Japan earlier than the conversion guidelines turned constant.
Older loanwords are sometimes the way in which they’re for customary causes — you will want to recollect how you can spell them in katakana.
As you may’ve seen, part of this motive is the no-use of mixture katakana. Sounds that we historically did not have or unusual sounds in Japanese had been changed with ones simpler to pronounce and acknowledge for Japanese audio system. So in the event that they had been borrowed at this time, they’d be katakanized in a different way — like レイディオ. Nonetheless, a lot of them stay the identical regardless of the change as we’re already used to the way in which they’re! Which means, older loanwords are sometimes the way in which they’re for customary causes — you will want to recollect how you can spell them in katakana.
Katakanize Like a Professional
Katakanization generally is a problem for native-English-speaking learners, even those that are already fluent in Japanese. Nonetheless, remember studying how you can katakanize is not going to solely enable you higher acclimate to Japanese phonology and enhance your general pronunciation, but additionally make your spoken Japanese extra understandable and approachable. And if you happen to take a look at it from a unique perspective — being an English speaker will also be a bonus in Japanese studying if you understand how katakanization works. If you begin with the ability to convert English phrases to katakana easily, and acknowledge extra katakana phrases that Japanese audio system use, you’ll be shocked what number of phrases already!
I hope the three primary guidelines and further suggestions enable you construct a very good basis for katakana conversion. It’s a extremely sensible talent and probably a recreation changer to deliver your Japanese to the subsequent degree. So, maintain katakanizing and continue to learn — Guddo rakku!